Archives June 2023


The size of a football (soccer) field is about 100 metres long and 60 metres wide, but in official games there are regulations about the minimum and maximum dimension. In the world football the most official dimensions are those that had been decied by FIFA (The Fédération Internationale de Football Association).
According to the stipulations from FIFA a football field should have specific minimum and maximum dimensions:

The length (touch line) has to be minimum 90 metres (100 yds) and maximum 120 metres (130 yds).
The width (goal line) has to be minimum 45 metres (50 yds) and maximum 90 metres (100 yds).
For international matches the rules are somewhat stricter:

The length has to be minimum 100 metres and maximum 110 metres.
The width has to be minimum 64 metres and maximum 75 metres.
In 1800s, the fields could be up to 100 yards wide and 200 yards long. The boundaries were only marked by flags until 1882 when boundary lines, as well as a halfway line (the center circle became a standard five years later), on the turf were enforced.

The goal area
The goal area is the small box inside the penalty area. The FIFA rules stipulates that the distance from each goalpost to the lines that goes parallel with the touch line should be 5.5 metres. When the size of a standard goal is added it makes the distance between the lines 18.32 metres.
The penalty area
The penalty area is the bigger box close to the goal that integrates the goal area and the penalty mark (it was introduced in 1887 and was complemented by D-shaped curve in 1937). The lines that extend into the fields are 16.5 metres and they have a 40.32 metres distance from each other.

The penalty mark is 11 metres from the goal line and centered on the fields’ goal line.
A very common field dimension among the top clubs in the world is 105 × 68 metres (114.8 × 74.4 yds), since this is a recommendation from UEFA. Some famous stadiums and the dimension of their football fields:

Camp Nou: 105 × 68 metres
Wembley: 105 × 68 metres
Old Trafford: 105 × 68 metres
Emirates Stadium: 105 × 68 metres
San Siro: 105 × 68 metres
Allianz Arena: 105 × 68 metres
Maracanã: 105 × 68 metres
Tottenham Hotspur Stadium: 105 × 68 metres
Stamford Bridge: 103 × 67 metres
Anfield: 101 × 68 metres

According to the guidelines of UEFA, it should be an additional 1-3 metres beyond the touchline to the advertising boards.


Tennis Court Dimensions:- 

A tennis court is 78ft (23.77m) in length. The courts used for singles matches are 27ft (8.23m) wide, while doubles courts are 36ft (10.97m) wide. The court’s service line is 21ft (6.4m) from the net.

Are tennis courts all the same size?

Tennis courts are a standard size. Although there may be some minor discrepancies between courts, all professional ATP and ITF courts should be the same. However, if someone has created a court for their own recreational purpose or Touch Tennis, this could be any size. Both singles and doubles courts tend to be the same size, with the court featuring markings that differentiate the spaces used for singles games and doubles games.

What is the total area of a tennis court?

The total area of a tennis court is usually 260.87m² –the total playing area of a doubles court. A singles court, which is often marked within the doubles court has a total playing area of 195.65m².
Length of a tennis court
The length of a tennis court is 23.77m. This is the same for both singles and doubles courts.

Width of a tennis court:-

The width of a tennis court is usually 10.97m, with the singles lines sitting 1.37m in either side. The width of the singles court is 8.23m.

Singles tennis court dimensions:-

A single tennis court is 23.77m long and 8.23m wide, with the service line being 6.4m from the net. The total playing area is 195.65m².

Doubles tennis court dimensions:-

A doubles tennis court is 23.77m long and 10.97m wide, with the service line being 6.4m from the net. The total playing area is 260.87m².

Tennis court size in yards:-

A tennis court is 26yd long, with a service line 7yd from the net. Singles matches courts are 9yd wide, while doubles matches courts are 12yd wide. The total playing area for a singles court is 234yd² and 312yd² for a doubles court.

What do the boxes on a tennis court mean?

The boxes on a tennis court are used to separate the different regions of the playing area, which are utilised for different parts of the game.

The deuce service box and the ad service box
Both service boxes are named after the scoring system. You always begin a game serving to the deuce service box. When the score is on deuce you serve to the deuce service box, and when it is ad in or ad out you serve to the ad service box.

The doubles alleys
These boxes differentiate a court from a singles and doubles game. The alleys are only used for doubles games.

“No man’s land”
An unofficial term, “no man’s land” refers to the largest box on the court. This is the area of the court that is typically found the most difficult to play in.

Net Height & Dimensions
The height of a tennis court net is 1.07m (3ft 6in) at the posts and 0.91m (3ft) in the centre. The net posts are 0.91m (3ft) outside of both singles and doubles courts.

How much space do you need for a tennis court?

A standard tennis court court requires at least 36.58m (120ft) by 18.29m (60ft), or 668.9m² (7,200ft²). A tournament court requires 39.62m (130ft) by 21.34m (70ft), or 845.42m² (9,100ft²), providing space for umpires and player overrun. If you have less than 1½ acres of land, you will not have enough space to install a tennis court.

What is the best surface for a tennis court?

There are three types of tennis court surface: grass, clay and hard. Grass courts are better suited for fast-paced games, while clay courts slow down the game and the soft surface provides a higher bounce. Both courts are high maintenance, whereas the hard court is a low maintenance surface. Hard courts are a middle ground between the fast and slow games of the grass and clay courts.

How wide are the lines on a tennis court?

The lines of a tennis court should be at least 2in in width, with the baseline being at least 4in wide.

How high is an indoor tennis court?

The minimum height of an indoor tennis court is 9m above the net line. The ceiling should be 5.75m above the baseline and 4m above the rear of the run back (the distance behind this baseline). These spaces must be unobstructed.
There are three types of tennis court surface: grass, clay and hard. Grass courts are better suited for fast-paced games, while clay courts slow down the game and the soft surface provides a higher bounce. Both courts are high maintenance, whereas the hard court is a low maintenance surface. Hard courts are a middle ground between the fast and slow games of the grass and clay courts.

How wide are the lines on a tennis court?

The lines of a tennis court should be at least 2in in width, with the baseline being at least 4in wide.



An Olympic-size swimming pool conforms to regulated dimensions that are big enough for international competition. This type of swimming pool is used in the Olympic Games, where the race course is 50 metres (164.0 ft) in length, typically referred to as “long course”, distinguishing it from “short course” which applies to competitions in pools that are 25 metres (82.0 ft) in length, or 25 yards (22.86 m) in the United States. If touch panels are used in competition, then the distance between touch panels should be either 25 or 50 metres to qualify for FINA recognition. This means that Olympic pools are generally oversized, to accommodate touch panels used in competition.
An Olympic-size swimming pool is used as a colloquial unit of volume, to make approximate comparisons to similarly sized objects or volumes. It is not a specific definition, as there is no official limit on the depth of an Olympic pool. The value has an order of magnitude of 1 megaliter (ML).


Basketball courts come in many different sizes. In the National Basketball Association (NBA), the court is 94 by 50 feet (28.7 by 15.2 m). Under International Basketball Federation (FIBA) rules, the court is slightly smaller, measuring 28 by 15 meters (91.9 by 49.2 ft). In amateur basketball, court sizes vary widely. Many older high school gyms were 84 feet (26 m) or even 74 feet (23 m) in length. The baskets are always 3.05 meters (10.0 ft) above the floor (except possibly in youth competition

Basketball courts have a three-point arc at both baskets. A basket made from behind this arc is worth three points; a basket made from within this line, or with a player’s foot touching the line, is worth 2 points. The free-throw line, where one stands while taking a foul shot, is located within the three-point arc at 15 feet from the plane of the backboard. A foul shot is worth 1 point, but if a shot is made from the foul line while in play it is still worth 2 points.



A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations, and even videos.

The full form of Computer is:- 
C– Common
U– Used for
T– Technological and
The term was coined in the mid-20th century when computers were first developed

Hardware vs. software:- 

Before we talk about different types of computers, let’s talk about two things all computers have in common: hardware and software.
Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure, such as the keyboard or mouse. It also includes all of the computer’s internal parts, which you can see in the image below.
Software is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do and how to do it. Examples of software include web browsers, games, and word processors.
Everything you do on your computer will rely on both hardware and software. For example, right now you may be viewing this lesson in a web browser (software) and using your mouse (hardware) to click from page to page. As you learn about different types of computers, ask yourself about the differences in their hardware. As you progress through this tutorial, you’ll see that different types of computers also often use different types of software.

What are the different types of computers?

When most people hear the word computer, they think of a personal computer such as a desktop or laptop. However, computers come in many shapes and sizes, and they perform many different functions in our daily lives. When you withdraw cash from an ATM, scan groceries at the store, or use a calculator, you’re using a type of computer.

Desktop computers

Many people use desktop computers at work, home, and school. Desktop computers are designed to be placed on a desk, and they’re typically made up of a few different parts, including the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.

Laptop computers

The second type of computer you may be familiar with is a laptop computer, commonly called a laptop. Laptops are battery-powered computers that are more portable than desktops, allowing you to use them almost anywhere.

Tablet computers

Tablet computers—or tablets—are handheld computers that are even more portable than laptops. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, tablets use a touch-sensitive screen for typing and navigation. The iPad is an example of a tablet.


A server is a computer that serves up information to other computers on a network. For example, whenever you use the Internet, you’re looking at something that’s stored on a server. Many businesses also use local file servers to store and share files internally.

Other types of computers
Many of today’s electronics are basically specialized computers, though we don’t always think of them that way. Here are a few common examples.

Smartphones: Many cell phones can do a lot of things computers can do, including browsing the Internet and playing games. They are often called smartphones.
Wearables: Wearable technology is a general term for a group of devices—including fitness trackers and smartwatches—that are designed to be worn throughout the day. These devices are often called wearables for short.
Game consoles: A game console is a specialized type of computer that is used for playing video games on your TV.
TVs: Many TVs now include applications—or apps—that let you access various types of online content. For example, you can stream video from the Internet directly onto your TV.


Role of Horizontal Bands :-
Horizontal bands are the most important earthquake-resistant feature in masonry buildings. The bands are provided to hold a masonry building as a single unit by tying all the walls together, and are similar to a closed belt provided around cardboard boxes. There are four types of bands in a typical masonry building, namely gable band, roof band, lintel band and plinth band , named after their location in the building. The lintel band is the most important of all, and needs to be provided in almost all buildings. The gable band is employed only in buildings with pitched or sloped roofs. In buildings with flat reinforced concrete or reinforced brick roofs, the roof band is not required, because the roof slab also plays the role of a band. However, in buildings with flat timber or CGI sheet roof, roof band needs to be provided. In buildings with pitched or sloped roof, the roof band is very important. Plinth bands are primarily used when there is concern about uneven settlement of foundation soil. The lintel band ties the walls together and creates a support for walls loaded along weak direction from walls loaded in strong direction. This band also reduces the unsupported height of the walls and thereby improves their stability in the weak direction. During the 1993 Latur earthquake (Central India), the intensity of shaking in Killari village was IX on MSK scale. Most masonry houses sustained partial or complete collapse . On the other hand, there was one masonry building in the village, which had a lintel band and it sustained the shaking very well with hardly any damage .

Design of Lintel Bands :- 

During earthquake shaking, the lintel band undergoes bending and pulling actions . To resist these actions, the construction of lintel band requires special attention. Bands can be made of wood (including bamboo splits) or of reinforced concrete (RC) (Figure 4); the RC bands are the best. The straight lengths of the band must be properly connected at the wall corners. This will allow the band to support walls loaded in their weak direction by walls loaded in their strong direction. Small lengths of wood spacers (in wooden bands) or steel links (in RC bands) are used to make the straight lengths of wood runners or steel bars act together. In wooden bands, proper nailing of straight lengths with spacers is important. Likewise, in RC bands, adequate anchoring of steel links with steel bars is necessary.

Indian Standards:-

The Indian Standards IS:4326-1993 and IS:13828 (1993) provide sizes and details of the bands. When wooden bands are used, the cross-section of runners is to be at least 75mm×38mm and of spacers at least 50mm×30mm. When RC bands are used, the minimum thickness is 75mm, and at least two bars of 8mm diameter are required, tied across with steel links of at least 6mm diameter at a spacing of 150 mm centers.


RCC Bands:-  In load bearing structure (Masonry Building) are reinforced concrete runner provided in the walls to tie them together and to impart horizontal bending strength in them.
RCC bands  or reinforced concrete runner are the important horizontal member of load bearing structure which resists forces and ties wall together. They integrate masonry wall into the stronger unit. RCC bands in load bearing structure are also known as horizontal seismic bands. The dimension of the band and the inside reinforcement bars depends upon the length of the wall between the perpendicular cross walls. There are five types of band namely gable band, roof band, lintel band, sill band, and plinth band, named after their location in the building.

Gable Band :– is a horizontal member which is placed at the top of the ridge of the sloping slab to support the ends of the rafters and transferring loads to posts or gable end walls.
Roof Band :- is a load bearing member of a roof at roof level. Sometimes roof band is not required because the roof slab of load bearing wall masonry also plays the role of a band. Roof beams are generally provided in the building with flat timber or CGI sheet roof.
Lintel Band:-  is a horizontal member which is placed at the top of the opening like door and window to support the portion of the unsupported wall above it continuously throughout the length of wall. It is the most important band.
Sill Band:-  is a horizontal member which is place at the bottom of the opening to support the load of the window frame. It is discontinued at the door opening.
Plinth Band:-  is a horizontal member which is positioned at the plinth level to tie the wall at plinth level.

The Function of RCC Bands in Load Bearing Structure (Masonry Building):-

  1. Lintel Band:–  ties all the masonry walls together and create a support for adjoining masonry walls loaded along the weak direction from walls loaded in the strong direction.
    2. They also reduce the unsupported height of the walls, hence improves the stability of masonry walls in the weak direction.
    3. Lintel band also provides support to chhajja, and sill band support the load of the window frame.
    4. During an earthquake, bands sustain the shaking and hence minimize damage to load-bearing masonry building.
    5. They provide ductility and crack proof masonry building, as masonry buildings are as such brittle structure.
    Horizontal seismic RCC bands in load bearing structure (Masonry Building) are provided to improve their performance. Even if horizontal bands are provided, masonry buildings are weakened by the openings in their walls hence it is advisable to provide vertical reinforcement at side or corner of opening for better performance of the building.




The famous Indian designer started his career as a model. When he failed as a model, he streamlined himself into designing clothes, art and fashion. He started his fashion career in Bollywood films and his designs were influential in bringing the fashion design industry in the spotlight. So it’s no surprise that he tops the list!

He also won best costume designer award in the years 1999, 2002, 2005 & 2007. Also, he was the one who paved way for many other designers and was an inspiration for designers to get into the Indian fashion weeks.

He is best known for revamping traditional wear designs to modern looks. Intricate embroideries, unique western-inspired trends like off shoulder blouses or floor-length ponchos are some of his signature styles. To know more read Manish Malhotra: All You Need to Know About India’s Favorite Designer.

Designer :-                                                                                         Manish Malhotra
Social media following                                                                    9.5 million
Started designing in                                                                         1995
Shopping on official website                                                          Yes
Approx max. price                                                                            7.6 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                                                           Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                                                15
Number of International outlets                                                    5
Men/Women                                                                                     Both
SlubScore                                                                                           15851


He is well known for his keen interest in designing as an art form. Also, his attention to detail is something that is worth mentioning! If someone wanted to get a gist of contemporary Indian fashion, they just need to look at Rohit Bal’s beautiful couture collections.
Born in Srinagar, this designer has started designing since 1990 and launched his label in the same year. He has held fashion shows in Paris, New York, Singapore, Geneva and all the major cities of India.
He has collabarated with many Indian and international brands like Christian Louboutin, Kirtilal Jewellers, Zippo Lighters and very recently with international textile company, Reid & Taylor.

Designer                                                                            Rohit Bal
Social media following                                                   4.25 LACKS
Started designing in                                                        1990
Shopping on official website                                         Yes
Approx max. price                                                           14.5 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                                          Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                               12
Number of International outlets                                   1
Men/Women                                                                     Both
SlubScore                                                                            15500


Indian culture, heritage and craftsmanship have always been an inspiration for the designer. In 2008, she received an award for Excellence in Fashion Design. Her designs are available under four different brands, namely Anita Dongre, Anita Dongre Grassroot, AND and Global Desi.

Out of these, Anita Dongre brand caters to bridal and menswear, Anita Dongre Grassroot for organic clothes, AND for western wear and Global Desi for ethnic lovers. With 13 stores in India and 2 international stores, of which one was opened recently in SoHo, the fashion designer is all set to make a benchmark in the world of designing.

Anita Dongre has an immense interest in Indian culture. She loves working with Indian handloom, textile weaves and eco-friendly textiles.

Designer                                                                 Anita Dongre
Social media following                                        3.24 LACKS
Started designing in                                             1992
Shopping on official website                              Yes
Approx max. price                                                 8.4 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                               Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                    14
Number of International outlets                        2
Men/Women                                                          Both
SlubScore                                                                10086


Kolkata based designer, Sabyasachi started designing in 1999 and his roots and heritage have always heavily influenced his designs. Traditional and Indian is his forté and he gets his inspiration for the scenic views and backdrops of Kolkata. Not only traditional but he has a good insight into western culture too and that’s the reason he has collaborated with Christian Louboutin to create embroidered Louboutin shoes.
In one of his interviews, Sabyasachi described his style as ‘personalized imperfection of the human hand’. Within 3 years of his label started, he was awarded the outstanding young designer by Femina British council. In 2002, he showcased at India Fashion Week and later, he also participated in many international fashion weeks like Mercedes Benz fashion week, Kuala Lumpur and Miami fashion weeks.
He has 18 stores in India and 6 international stores. He designs for both men and women and apart from the clothing, he designs accessories too! Personally, I am a huge fan of his embroidered capsule clutches.
Designer                                                         Sabyasachi Mukherjee
Social media following                                4.1 LACKS
Started designing in                                     1998
Shopping on official website                      YES
Approx max. price                                        3.5 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                      Yes
Number of Indian outlets                           20
Number of International outlets               7
Men/Women                                                 Both
SlubScore                                                        9131.5


The Delhi based designer has an impeccable take on designing three-dimensional silhouettes. He is well known for creating a fusion of outfits. In most of his collections, western silhouettes take a modern twist on haute couture. His collections also feature the usage of softest fabrics like chiffon, georgette organza and silk.
However, our previous reviews on his collection have been more on the harsher side, since some were notably similar to Paris Fashion Week looks. With over 600k followers on social media, this designer is surely one of the top fashion designers in India.
He started his career in 2006 and ever since then there’s been no looking back for the designer. He had designed for many celebrities and has stores all over the world.

Designer                                                            Gaurav Gupta
Social media following                                  5.25 LACKS
Started designing in                                       2006
Shopping on official website                        YES
Approx max. price                                          3.5 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                         Yes
Number of Indian outlets                             20
Number of International outlets                 6
Men/Women                                                   Both
SlubScore                                                         5928


The duo started designing in 2001 and within a span of three years, they even started their own label. With millions of followers on social media and over 18 years of experience, these designers deserve to be on the list of top fashion designers in India. The Shyamal & Bhumika page on Facebook is one of the most loved designer label accounts with over 2 million followers!

Their affinity for fashion grew along with them. Infused with Indian inspirations, they use artisan techniques and are also passionately involved with the revival of several crafts. The designer duo are one of the newest in India to have made an indelible mark on Indian couture scene with their intricate designs.

Designer                                                                  Shyamal & Bhumika
Social media following                                         2191.2 K
Started designing in                                             2001
Shopping on official website                               Yes
Approx max. price                                                 3.1 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                               Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                    3
Number of International outlets                        0
Men/Women                                                          Both
SlubScore                                                                5661.2


Varun Bahl makes it to our top fashion designers list. Since he is well known for creating style signatures and hence his clothes are fashionable and unique. His expertise in blending classic with contemporary created dreamy fairy tale outfits. He is also the one who has brought modern timeless touch to Indian bridal wear. Also, check out his “Vintage Gardens” collection, one of our personal favorites.
Starting from thousands to a maximum price of approximately five lakh rupees, you’ll find creative outfits designed by Varun Bahl. With over 17 years of experience and the way he has given a twist to Indian bridal wear, this designer certainly deserves to be in this list of the best Indian fashion designers.

Designer                                                           Varun Bahl
Social media following                                   93 K
Started designing in                                        2001
Shopping on official website                          No
Approx max. price                                            5.5 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                           Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                13
Number of International outlets                    1
Men/Women                                                      Both
SlubScore                                                            10086


The first thing that comes to one’s mind when we hear the name Neeta Lulla is costume designer for films. I still remember the outfits worn by the gorgeous actresses of the epic movie Devdas. She was also known for designing outfits for period films like Mohenjadaro. She has won a couple of national awards for costume designing.
“Fashion is not constant, style is,” says Neeta Lulla in most of her interviews. She has always been a feminist and it is portrayed in most of her collections.
Designer                                                                            Neeta Lulla
Social media following                                                   5.22 LACKS
Started designing in                                                        1985
Shopping on official website                                          No
Approx max. price                                                            3.9 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                                          Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                               15
Number of International outlets                                   0
Men/Women                                                                     Both
SlubScore                                                                            5420.4


The designer is well known for blending traditional Indian textile with western silhouettes. Her philosophy in designing is innovation in Indian style and keeping it extremely relevant to the modern world. She is also one of the first Indian women to showcase her designs in Paris Fashion Week. She is a designer who can help one find a personal style of their own.

Designer                                                                            Anamika Khanna
Social media following                                                   6.8 LACKS
Started designing in                                                        1998
Shopping on official website                                         No
Approx max. price                                                           2.1 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                                          Yes
Number of Indian outlets                                               18
Number of International outlets                                   3
Men/Women                                                                     Both
SlubScore                                                                            4231.9


At 73, Ritu Kumar is one of the eldest Indian fashion designers. With a background in ancient history and museology, her understanding of ancient designs and traditional craftsmanship has created a new era of designing in India.
She is one of the top fashion designers who has bridged the gap between traditional and modern wear. Also, she is the one who bought the boutique culture in India. With more than 50 stores in India and a couple of them abroad, this designer surely deserves to be on the list of top fashion designers in India.

Designer                                                            Ritu Kumar
Social media following                                   849.5 K
Started designing in                                        1969
Shopping on official website                         Yes
Approx max. price                                           3 lakh rupees
Couture collections                                          Yes
Number of Indian outlets                               61
Number of International outlets                    1
Men/Women                                                    Both
SlubScore                                                           7215



Fashion design is a form of art dedicated to the creation of clothing and other lifestyle accessories. Modern fashion design is divided into two basic categories: haute couture and ready-to-wear. The haute couture collection is dedicated to certain customers and is custom sized to fit these customers exactly. In order to qualify as a haute couture house, a designer has to be part of the Syndical Chamber for Haute Couture and show a new collection twice a year presenting a minimum of 35 different outfits each time.

Ready-to-wear collections are standard sized, not custom made, so they are more suitable for large production runs. They are also split into two categories: designer/createur and confection collections. Designer collections have a higher quality and finish as well as an unique design. They often represent a certain philosophy and are created to make a statement rather than for sale. Both ready-to-wear and haute-couture collections are presented on international catwalks.

Who Invented It?

The first fashion designer who was more than a simple seamster was Charles Frederick Worth, in the 19th century. Before he set up his fashion design house in Paris, clothing was made by anonymous dressmakers and fashion standards were derived from the styles worn by royalty. Worth was the first designer to actually dictate to his customers what to wear rather than following their demands.

His fashion house became so famous that people were able to attach a face and a name to designs when they knew they were from the House of Worth. This was the beginning of the tradition to have a designer of a house not only create clothing, but also represent the symbol of the brand.

What Does It Take To Be A Fashion Designer?

Fashion design is a form of art. To work as a designer, you should have an artistic and creative personality. You also have to be good at drawing and able to express your ideas in sketches. You don’t necessarily have to be a great artist, but you must have some special skills for combining colors, tones and shades. You also have to be able to work with fabric and use textiles in a creative and original manner. Fashion designers have a good visual imagination and are able to think in three-dimensions and put their ideas into garments.

Fashion designers have to be aware of the fashion market requirements. They have to be very interested in learning new things and read magazines, journals and books on fashion design history and new trends. They also have to be interested in art, visit art galleries and interact with all kinds of artists whenever they have the opportunity. A designer should also have some knowledge and experience of tailoring (cutting, draping, sewing etc.) and be able to tell the difference between different fabric quality levels.

A good understanding of the audience’s lifestyle and customer needs and requirements is also needed in fashion design. Designers should have good communication skills and be able to express their ideas clearly. But most important, they have to be very original and have fresh, innovative ideas.


UPVC stands for Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride. It is a form of plastic that is hard and inflexible, which is why it is also known as rigid PVC. Benefits of uPVC Doors and Windows. The reason behind uPVC’s popularity among both homeowners and designers is because of the benefits that it provides.

We operate several doors and windows daily but seldom think about them. Well, how many times have we opened and closed doors and windows without putting much thought into the technological advancement that resulted in the design of the modern hinge, the ergonomic care that went into developing the door handle, or the exceptional accuracy with which the door was hung? Yet, these elemental components form a vital part of every building, commercial or residential, and hence must be chosen wisely. A building material that has become popular in the fenestration industry in recent years is uPVC – one of the oldest polymers in existence.

UPVC stands for Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride. It is a form of plastic that is hard and inflexible, which is why it is also known as rigid PVC.

Benefits of uPVC Doors and Windows

The reason behind uPVC’s popularity among both homeowners and designers is because of the benefits that it provides. Given below are some of them.

Easy to Maintain

uPVC doesn’t rot, flake, peel or corrode even after years of usage. All it requires is a gentle wipe with a clean cloth dipped in a solution of household cleaner and water to clean and maintain the freshness of uPVC door windows. The fact that it practically requires no maintenance makes uPVC doors and windows a convenient addition to your space.

Thermal and Acoustic-Insulation

uPVC door windows, when paired with double-glazed glass, can provide excellent thermal insulation and can keep your home warmer during the winter months and cooler during the summers. Along with this, double-glazing glass paired with uPVC door windows can also insulate against outside noise. Outside noise can be a huge issue, especially if you live near a busy street, which is why uPVC door windows with double-glazed glass become an important addition to your home.

Energy-Efficient and Eco-Friendly

By installing low-E or low-emissivity glass panes sealed with special silicone sealants in your uPVC door windows, you will be able to create an energy-saving zone. Low-E glass is a double-glazed glass that reflects the sun’s heat away during summers and can trap interior heat during winters. This will ensure ideal indoor temperature and can reduce your usage of heating and cooling systems. This will, in turn, lead to reduced monthly energy bills. This will also stay protected against the harmful rays of the sun. Along with being a more energy-efficient choice, uPVC is also intrinsically non-toxic, making it an environment-conscious decision.


As uPVC is a highly durable material, it allows for the construction of doors and windows that are long-lasting. It is dust-proof, termite-proof, moisture, and weather-resistant. uPVC can also protect you and your loved ones from harmful UV rays of the sun. As a result, they stand the test of time and usage without losing their charm.

Provides Security

UPVC door window designs generally come with multi-point locking systems that render a high level of security to your property. Moreover, uPVC doors have galvanized steel cores, which are very difficult to break, thereby adding another layer of protection.

UPVC door windows are available in a wide range of styles and designs, making them the perfect pick for your home or office.

Types of UPVC Doors

Slide-and -Fold Doors

uPVC Slide-and-Fold doors are your best pick if you want to install them in a large open area. These doors have a simple structure and are extremely easy to operate. The best part of Slide-and-Fold doors is that they can be folded to one side to save space and to offer an unobstructed view of the outdoors.

Sliding Doors

UPVC Sliding doors are the most popular doors in the market. As one glass pane slides over the other along a track, Sliding doors don’t take up much space. If you want to have an unobstructed outside view, then these doors are your best choice as they are made up of large glass panes.

French Doors

UPVC French doors are hinged on the sides and can open either inwards or outwards. They are the most secure form of doors as there is only one opening handle on the inside. French doors are known for their visually-pleasing designs, and their addition will add old-school Renaissance charm to your property.

Casement Doors

UPVC Casement doors are hinged from the side and have a single sash. They can be designed to open inwards or outwards. These doors are the perfect addition to your patio, balcony, or deck.

Lift-and-Sliding Doors

UPVC Lift-and-Sliding doors are designed to create expansive glass walls. You can operate these doors efficiently because of the smooth sliding panels. They can slide into a wall pocket, against a jamb, or along an outside wall. As these doors look like glass walls, they will provide you with the best view of your garden or backyard.

Types of uPVC Windows

Sliding Windows

UPVC Sliding windows consists of frames that can slide back and forth. These windows work best in rooms with limited space.

Tilt-and-Turn Windows

UPVC tilt-and-turn windows blend smart aesthetics with intelligent operability perfectly. If you opt for these windows, you have the flexibility of using them as a source of ventilation by opening them inwards at an angle or using them as a standard window by swinging the complete sash inwards.

Fixed Windows

Also known as Picture Windows, uPVC fixed windows are usually used to frame the outside view. These windows don’t have any moving parts and are fixed. The primary function of these windows is to allow an ample amount of sunlight to enter your home. They are the perfect addition to your kitchen and living spaces.

Glass-to-Glass Windows

Also known as glass corner windows, uPVC Glass-to-glass windows are one of the most aesthetically appealing windows. These windows are designed to create a sense of space. They add a modern look to your interiors and offer a panoramic view of the outdoors.

Casement Windows

UPVC casement windows are attached to their frame by one or more hinges at the side. They are the most traditional style of windows available in the market. There are different stylistic variations of casement windows such as French windows, Twin sash windows, Side Hung windows, Top hung windows, etc.

Looking for experts that can help you with top-quality uPVC door windows solutions? Look no further than AIS Windows. As a subsidiary to Asahi India Glass Limited, we at AIS Windows provide 360-degree doors and windows solutions for residential and commercial purposes. Our experts will guide you from the stage of selection to the installation process and will also offer post-installation services. We offer a variety of innovative and elegant uPVC door windows designs. Not only this, but with us, you can also get our designs customised to match your taste, theme, and preference.