Definition: A wall which is constructed to support the above slab or other building elements in a structure is called a load-bearing wall.
Main Features: Followings are the main features of load-bearing walls:
It is a structural element.
It carries the weight of a house from the roof and upper floors.
Load bearing walls transfer loads all the way to the Foundation or other suitable frame members.
It can support structural members like beams (sturdy pieces of wood or metal), slab and walls on above floors above.
A wall directly above the beam is called a load bearing wall if it is designed to carry the vertical load.
Load bearing walls also carry their own weight.
This wall is typically over one another on each floor.
Load bearing walls can be used as an interior or exterior wall.
This kind of wall will often be perpendicular to floor joists or ridge.
Concrete is an ideal material to support these loads.
Types of Load Bearing Walls
Followings are the types of load bearing walls:
Precast Concrete Wall: This wall is aesthetically pleasing. The precast wall has superior strength and known for its durability. It provides excellent protection and is easy to install.
Retaining Wall: It provides lateral support. Installing a retaining wall has many environmental benefits like reducing erosion and protecting areas from being saturated. It is also known as revetment or breast wall.
Masonry Wall: Masonry is the most durable part of any structure. It allows for unlimited architectural expressions. They provide strength durability. Masonry wall also helps to control the temperature in indoor and out. Also, it increases the fire resistance. Lateral stiffness of the masonry wall is very low.
: It is used for building exterior wall cladding. The metal can be stainless steel, copper, aluminum. It supports gravity, seismic and wind loading. Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
Engineering Brick Wall: It uses double open-ended bond beam blocks. It is built using a mold. Block wall is replaced horizontally.
Stone Wall: It is treated as a stone structure. It is kinda masonry construction. This wall provides structure to a building and encloses an area.
Definition: A wall which doesn’t help the structure to stand up and holds up only itself is known as a non-load bearing wall. This wall is also referred to as Curtian wall”.Main Features: Followings are the main features of non-load bearing walls:
A non-load bearing wall doesn’t support floor roof loads above.
It is not a part of the structural frame system.
Most of the time, they are interior walls whose purpose is to divide the floor into rooms.
They are built lighter to reduce the dead load of the structure.
One can remove any non-load bearing walls without endangering the safety of the building.
Non-load bearing walls can be identified by the joists and rafters.
They are not responsible for gravitational support for the property. It is cost effective.
Types of Non-Load Bearing Walls
Followings are the type of non-load bearing walls based on the used wall unit:
Hollow Concrete Block Wall
Facade Bricks Wall
Hollow Bricks Wall
Brief descriptions of these types of non-load bearing walls are given below:
Hollow Concrete Block
The walls of the concrete building are made hollow. It has the advantage of great strength. It gives stability without any waste of material.
It is solid, durable and practically maintenance free. Colors do not lose their radiance in this brick. Facade bricks are ecological and sustainable.
They are green living. They can reduce the use of heating and cooling devices. They are strong and better used. Hollow bricks are cost effective.
It is an immovable block or wall made of brick. Brick walls are easy to install.
We knew that in a framed structure A vertical structural member which can transmit the load from the slab, beam along with its self-weight to the foundation is called column.
Why we provide column?
Columns carry axial loads and therefore are designed for compression.
Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns.
We shall build up a small size structure by RR masonry at a certain height but the multi-story building cannot be constructed by RR masonry because the structure can able to transmit the heavy load to the foundation.
Basically, a column designed to distribute the compressive axial load & additional forces like snow, wind to the foundation eventually & it could be sustained the structure even in the earthquake or any other force majeure.
Column- Based on Shape & Reinforcement
Y Type Column
T Type Column
L Type Column
Most of the building structure was constructed by square or rectangular column. Significantly both are having same components and it is differ based on its architect view.
These type of column was economically good and easy to do shuttering, placing reinforcement & Concrete.
A vertical structural element, with a combination of steel section & concrete it is called as encased or composite column.
The composite column mostly provided for truss structure to avoid the steel corroded by any type of chemical.
The bending resistant is higher than square/rectangular column.
It occupies the lesser area.
Square/rectangular column reinforcement minimum 4 nos of steel will be places in the corner but in a circular column provide more than 4 nos.
Mostly in building circular column provided for the aesthetic purpose.
Economically it is little high to compare to square or rectangular column.
These type of column mostly using for bridges construction.
The design of bridges to sustain the dead load of the structure & live load of the vehicle motion, the load was eventually distributed to the column.
These type of column having same features like square/Rectangular type column.
Mostly it was provided along with retaining wall or boundary wall based on design requirement.
The L type column has used in boundary wall construction and heavy type L column was used in the turning of metro rail or bridges construction.
Column- Based on Load
Axial Load Column
Uniaxial Load Column
Bi-Axial Load Column
Eccentric Load Column
Axial Load Column
The entire load passes through the centre axis of the column which coincides with the X-axis, it is called Axial Load.
The load shall be either compression or tensile load.
Uniaxial Load Column
The eccentric load act on either X axis or Y axis it is called Uni axial load column.
Bi-Axial Load Column
The eccentric load act on either X axis or Y axis it is called Uni axial load column.
Eccentric Load Column
The load shall pass parallel to the centre axis of the member but act on its cross-section that’s called Eccentric load.
Column- Based on Slenderness Ratio
The length of the column divided by its radius of gyration, it is called slenderness ratio of the column.
The slenderness ratio is used to find out the buckling stress of the column.
Slenderness ratio of the column is greater than 12 it is called long column.
The column may fail on both compression & buckling load.
Slenderness ratio of the column is less than 12 it is called short column.
To start with what is ACP? We must know that Aluminum Composite Panels is formed when two sheets of aluminum are joined with an ore, which is non-aluminum in nature. This forms a composite aluminum panel. Here the inner section can be polyethylene. However, the external layer could be additionally layered using PVDF or Poly Vinylidene Fluoride.
What is ACP Cladding’s full form?
Many of us wonder about the ACP sheet’s full form. ACP board full form is aluminium composite panel, and it is widely utilized in various sorts of construction projects due to its versatility and various types that meet many construction needs.
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Aluminium Composite Panels?
Knowing about the ACP panel’s full form is not enough; one must understand its characteristics for the best application. In this context, discussed below are the key characteristics of aluminum composite panels.
First of all, ACP is lighter in weight. However, it is tough and enduring in nature, as well. This is the reason that ACP is mostly preferred to be used with the outer cladding. Also, such characteristics make it suitable for making signage.
ACP panel is highly preferred these days for the beautification of buildings. It is highly desired for building design when combined with glass curtain wall arrangements.
ACP panel is absolutely weather-resistive in nature. In fact, the shades of it don’t get faded under the sun’s rays as well.
The best part about the ACP panel is that one can easily find it, irrespective of the nation. Moreover, it is quite cost-effective in nature. This is considered one of the easiest materials from an installation perspective. Also, these materials require the least maintenance.
One can find ACP in varieties of shades. No matter whether you go with metallic shade or non-metallic, it can emulate the shade of wood and marble thoroughly over it. This is one of the prime reasons behind the enormous popularity of ACP. In the cladding material segment, especially, ACP is considered the most preferred material.
In terms of heat insulation characteristics, Aluminium Cadding is considered simply the best. Similarly, its characteristics of sound resisting are quite good as well.
These are extensively fire-resistive in nature. This is the reason that it is preferred for external cladding systems.
There remains a thermoplastic core, which helps in binding the layers together. In fact, the structure of such is the prime reason that makes it incredible for the outer cladding systems. Being used on the exterior of the building, it provides a glossy look and ensures greater weather protection.
Aluminium composite panel is Cost-effective & flexible in nature
When it comes to cutting or changing the shape, ACP cladding is always the preferred one. As far as being exposed to the air is concerned, ACP is highly reliable for the aluminum oxide layer it forms. This exposure safeguards the ACP panel from getting damaged by rust and issues of corrosion. Though the ACP panel is slim and lightweight in nature, one can thicken it through the process of anodization. No need is to worry about the endurance of this effect as ACP doesn’t get affected due to the effects of the sun.
People looking for easy-to-maintain material can undoubtedly trust ACP. For its characteristic of not catching dust, maintaining its cleanliness is never a big deal. Only rare cleaning can also keep it perfectly glossy.
Different types of ACP panel
After knowing what is ACP panel and its characteristics, it is important to know its types. One can find it in various options like Alucobond, Alpoli, Vitrabond, etc. It is suggested that one should understand the characteristic of each prior to opting to go with the same. Among these, Alucobond is most preferred for its commercially crucial characteristics. Firstly, it is made up of a couple of layers of aluminum cover sheer.
Its core layer is made up of polyethylene. The distinguishing part of the material is the smoothness it offers through its surface. At the same time, it is quite flexible in nature as well. One can prefer it for strenuous processes for the greater stability it ensures. One can find it in a huge variety of color options. Interestingly, it is possible to vary the color or shades as well in accordance with the requirement.
The other types possess similar characteristics as well, with little variation in their extents. However, each kind of ACP is equally weathered and resistive in nature. These are absolutely shocking preventive as well, which makes them the best option for the external layers. Their ability to endure vibration is simply unmatchable.
Vitrabond is recommended for those who want something cost-effective. Similarly, Alpolic is recommended for those who are looking for a flat ACP. In fact, Alpolic is considered one of the strongest of its kind ACP as well. Hence, one can select the specific kind of ACP as per the need.
Being suitable from an installation perspective, ACP has been the top pick among architects. Its lightweight characteristic makes it the most user-friendly in nature. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the concerned buyer to ensure that the ACP is qualitatively good enough for the desired application.
Aluminum composite panels have been in significant demand for constructing transportation, building, and cars. They are flexible, allow for easy creation, are lightweight, and permit innovative and creative design. They are solid and durable and can be considered an excellent sustainable material to create signage, building, or any other item you can think of. In this article we are going to talk about top 10 ACP sheet company in India.
There is a massive demand for ACP sheets producers is growing rapidly, and there are now millions of new manufacturers of sheets that buyers demand. If you’re contemplating buying the most premium and highest quality ACP sheets, then we have developed a fantastic alternative for you.
Best ACP Sheet Company
Aluminum Composite Panel is the full form of the ACP Sheet. It is composed of three layers. The Aluminum Surface is the first layer, followed by the Polyethylene Care Core or Mineral Fire Rated core, and finally, the Aluminum Surface. These sites refer to a thin sheet at its bottom and a thick sheet in the middle. This material is made up of two types. The first is a plastic polyethylene core material, and the second is a fire-resistant material. They each have their specialties. What is the best Top 10 ACP Sheet Company In India, and how can you get the List of Aluminium Composite Panel manufacturers in India? All your problems are solved here with this article.
Suggested Read:- WPC Exterior Louvers
Top 10 ACP Sheets Manufacturer in India
Presenting top 10 ACP Sheet Manufacturer in India:
Reynobond India is an emerging manufacturer of ACP and HPL in India. ReynoArch India manufactures their High-Quality Products under two brands, ‘ReynoArch,’ our premium brand for EN Fire-Resistant ACP and HPL & Non-FR core ACP and HPL sheets second brand be ‘Facade,’ our Economic series of Non-FR core ACP. ReynoArch India embraces your innovative design and presents you with the ideal way to follow the world’s path.
Since its inception in 2020, ReynoArch has been commanding an unshaken trust in the industry by dint of its die-hard commitment towards quality, innovation, and customer delight.
Since its inception in 2020, ReynoArch has been commanding an unshaken trust in the industry by dint of its die-hard commitment towards quality, innovation, and customer delight. ReynoArch is an end-to-end Indian Aluminium Composite Panel ACP & High-Pressure Laminates HPL manufacturer, powered by cutting-edge production facilities at Rajasthan.
The entire best-in-class ReynoArch product range is thus ‘Made in India.’ Spread over 8 acres, Adhering to the founding principle of hard work, our endeavors have allowed us to carve an unprecedented niche in the market. Today, the ReynoArch group is known for its quality products and values of integrity and reliability.
3. Virgo ACP
Virgo Group is a Delhi-based company that is believed to be the biggest multinational producer and distributor of the Aluminium rolling product in India. With over 1 million square feet of space to manufacture and an office comprised of more than 3000 workers, they can offer tonnes of their products on the market each week.
Their products are premium quality and innovative in design that impresses customers every time. Their products show finery as well as durability, strength, and flexibility. The company has over 10 years of experience manufacturing aluminum rolls and coils products. Their best ACP sheets are available under the brand name Virgo ACP. They give an old-fashioned, trendy, vintage, or any style you like and are used for creating signage, roofs, and other interior uses in addition. Take a look at Virgo ACP and take advantage of the best prices.
4. Alex Panels
Alex Aluminium Composite Panel is a Dehradun-based company with ISO 9001 & OHSAS 18001 certified. It is a subsidiary of Punjab Plywood Industries, a well-known pillar of the Indian plywood industry known for its high quality. The company is known under the name Black Cobra.
Alex makes use of “Kynar 500” resins for its exterior grade that ensures durability and anti-fungal properties. Beginning with the basic materials through to the Adhesive employed, ACP sheets are of the highest quality and have adaptability. There is a constant quality inspection in every manufacturing stage to ensure adequate thickness, density strength, and coating quality and grade of Aluminium.
Aludecor Lamination Private Limited is a Kolkata-based business and is considered one of the pioneers within the ACP sheets for business markets. The company was founded in 2004 and operated with a constant flow of confidence and trust by the customers. Aludecor, all of its products, is a “Made in India” quality, i.e., they are famous for their aesthetics and unique design.
The company has collaborated with some of the most prestigious National and International brands such as Samsung, AMUL, Toyota, KFC, Hyundai, Jaguar, HDFC, and various other big names. Before creating a quality product available to customers, they undergo multiple tests, such as color, fire, mechanical, and others. Check out their website and then purchase the next item on their list.
Viva is a Mumbai-based firm known as a significant and renowned brand in ACP sheets in India. The manufacturing plant is located in Gujarat, and the production capacity is seven million sq m. It was founded in 2003. and is now an ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015 and “CE” Certified Company with an 18-story warehouse and more than 500 dealers across India.
The Viva Aluminium composite panel is of superior quality, as you may have already realized, and provides endurance at all times. ACP’s ACP texture is glossy and durable as well, and the other features of top-quality products have resulted in us being Viva, an industry leader. Top and most reputable aluminium composite panel producers in India.
Eurobond is a Bombay-based business known as an early adopter of Aluminium Composite panels. The company is under the umbrella that is Euro Panel Products Pvt. Ltd. is a market leader in providing ACPs for various industry sectors.
Eurobond is renowned for its new products that are affordable price.
8. WONDER ALU BOARD OVERSEAS
Wonder ALU Board Overseas is a New Delhi-based company that is the largest manufacturer and distributor of Aluminium Composite Panels in India. The manufacturing facility in Rajasthan covers the area of 50,000 square feet and is accompanied by many groups of experts and professors.
The aluminium composite panels are light but durable in quality and are used for various applications. They are certified quality and are cost-effective. Their key features are Elegant design, top-quality finish, and abrasion resistance.
As the name suggests, Alstrong creates unique and robust Aluminium composite panels. It is a Delhi company with its headquarters in Delhi, and the manufacturing facility is located in Jammu. The company is home to 20 company offices, 17 Warehouses, and more than 400plus PAN- India sales representatives. Its own logistics team can provide its products on time and at the agreed time.
They are known for their use of Korean and Japanese technology to create ACP sheets that are top in quality. The material and design are highly durable, non-maintenance, and safe for the environment. As for aesthetics, they are always able to provide better-looking products.
Alucobond is another well-known company in India known for its premium ACP panels. The company is located in Bombay and was founded in 1969, and the manufacturing plant is located in Maharashtra. The company’s mission is modern-day construction, and with more than 50 years of expertise, they offer a simple but functional design and materials that last for a long time with you.
They produce premium panels that have a distinctive appearance and fire-resistant characteristics. They are water-proof and scratch-resistant by the firm material and lightweight in weight.
Top 10 ACP Sheet Company In India:- In conclusion, ACP Sheets are perfect for Your infrastructure because they give them a vintage look and are fashionable. If you choose the best quality ACP sheets, you can achieve your dreams of stunning construction, industry, or something else. These are the top 10 aluminium composite panel producers in India recognized for their sheets that are tough and long-lasting.
HOW CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE QUALITY AND SAFETY OF ANY INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT
Over the years, real estate has become a topic of varied opinions. The rise of this industry has seen so many challenges and witnessed many changes; however, thus, outcome attained by it has been varied too.
People today are not afraid to invest in real estate and often go to great heights to make sure they receive value for their buck and more importantly get a place that makes them and their families comfortable.
However, even before the finished apartment comes into being, the initial draft or blueprint is something that key focus is laid on.
This also comprises the construction materials, the raw material for interiors, planning and several other important decisions that need to be discussed in this time zone. One of the major aspects here is the construction and building materials.
Today, we have brands and suppliers in abundance who supply some of the best building construction materials and a lot of builders also go one step ahead to even partner with suppliers who supply quality products.
So why the emphasis on ensuring you only have premium quality construction material as a part of your building construction process?
Well because, the final reflection of your construction will be proof of what you have used right from the beginning and its life and sustenance of the project as well, will be wholly focused on it.Here is how good construction materials will play an important role in the quality and safety of an infrastructure project:
1. Cost-Saving in the Long Run:
If you put an extra buck or two in procuring the best quality construction and building materials, this will in a way save a ton of money later on.If you skimp, you will be shelling out small amounts to fix a small wear and tear and in the end, this will result in a sum much larger than what you would have to pay initially for good quality material.This, make sure for this ‘skeleton’ of your construction, you invest only in the best quality goods you can acquire.
2. No Complaints and Maintaining Goodwill:
It is important to realize that the construction you are creating today will be a home for someone tomorrow.
Putting in your best while constructing, it will ensure their home tomorrow is safeguarded and secure and for that, they will only have the builder to thank! This in a way will add to your goodwill and lead to happy and content customers.
3. Recommendations will Improve Business like No Other Marketing Strategy:
Following the goodwill, people will speak to their acquaintances, friends and colleagues and in a way market your service for free! This will do wonders for your business in the long run as real testimonials from someone you know means more than any amounts of marketing strategies you use.
4. Saves Time:
In the future, fixing small glitches in the property will mean more expenses and effort, and of course will create a hassle for the residents too. All these concerns can be taken care of if you simply invest in quality construction materials right from the start.
5. Assurance during Natural Calamities or Crisis:
Although the risk associated with natural calamities cannot be measured, you can definitely take measures to minimize damage in case of one!
Some good quality material will be able to withstand damage to a certain extent and of course, will be able to repulse way better than a building whose base construction is in itself poor.
Building construction methods have experienced significant facelift in recent times with innovative technologies being harnessed optimally for improving the qualitative index of buildings.
This has spelled considerable advantages for end users like us who can remain immune from recurrent expenses on repairs and other incidental building-related jobs. Construction lead time has also been reduced and building costs have been rationalized.
This post takes you through 8 techniques that have given the much-needed fillip to the most primitive human pursuit that still exists i.e. construction.
1) 3D Volumetric Construction
Using this modular construction technology, 3D units are produced in controlled factory settings using needful construction and building materials.
Finished units are transported to site in various modules, basic structural blocks or final touched up units with all amenities installed, for assembly. Blocks can be erected rapidly at site and properties of concrete like fire retardant, sound resistivity, thermal mass etc. are retained.
2) Precast Flat Panel Modules
These are primarily wall and floor modules which are manufactured away from the actual site and then transported to site for erection. Load bearing components like decorative cladding and insulation panels can also be produced.
Also called cross-wall construction, the technology has gained momentum due to seamless adherence to specifications and ease as well as swiftness of construction.
3) Tunnel Formwork System
With this tunnel technique, construction is paced up for cellular structures of repetitive patterns through the building of monolithic walls or units in a single operation per day.
Expeditious work is achieved by deploying formwork and readily mixed concrete with the convenience and agility of factory conditions. Formworks in tunnel form are stacked and used at the site with cranes.
4) Flat Slabbing Technology
This technique utilizes the simplicity of contemporary formwork for quickly building flat slabs to facilitate easy and swift placing of horizontal amenities and for partitioning.
Maximization of pre-fabricated services occurs as services can be carried out in an uninterrupted manner in zones underneath the floor slabs.Every top-notch building construction company . is using the same as internal layouts can be conveniently modified for accommodating alterations at a later date. Further, reinforcement needed is lesser which cuts down labour costs significantly.
5) Pre-cast Foundation Technique
Foundations can be built swiftly with precast concrete units which are produced in a factory and are high on quality quotient. Strength is imparted to foundation related building construction materials through interconnected concrete piles.
This technique allows construction work to progress even in inclement weather and minimizes excavation activity.
6) Hybrid Concrete Building Technique
This technique expedites construction turnaround time by blending the advantages of concrete pre-casting with the in-situ building. Quality improves, whereas the cost of construction plummets.
Hybrid concrete structures are easy to build, competitive in nature and perform consistently.
7) Thin Joint Masonry Technique
Utilization of this technique leads to the reduction of the quantum of mortar applied by slashing it depth from 10mm to lesser than 3mm. Consequently, mortar can be laid swiftly with enhanced productivity on the longer wall panels.
With large sized concrete blocks, higher construction efficiency along with significant cost reduction can be achieved. Within a single day, the number of mortar courses laid is higher as curing of mortar takes place quickly without compromising on bonding strength resulting in the elimination of floating problem.
8) Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) Technique
ICF technique employs polystyrene blocks that feature twin walls and can be rapidly put together for creating building wall formwork. The formwork is then pumped in with high quality, ready mixed, factory-made concrete.
The building construction process becomes fool-proof and the resultant structure has a high level of sound and thermal insulation.
Building construction methods have matured significantly with advancement in technologies underlying them.
Steel reinforcement bars or rebars are used to improve the tensile strength of the concrete, since concrete is very weak in tension, but is strong in compression. Steel is only used as rebar because elongation of steel due to high temperatures (thermal expansion coefficient) nearly equals to that of concrete.
Rebaring is the method of insertion of the Steel bars when,
there is change in design or there is some extension of the present structure.When Steel rod as per drawing has not been installed.
Rebaring technique is reinforced concrete construction is a method for proper fabrication and placement of reinforcement bar as per the design and drawing of RCC work. 2) Need of Rebaring
The rebars are mainly provided at the junction where the formwork of structural element is closed as well as at the point where a new structural element needs to be bond with the former one.Change in the design and sudden extension in structure.Steel bars are not placed according to as per design.
Various conditions that rebaring process and equipment are changed.rebaring technique in reinforced concrete construction.Rebaring technique on a Pre-casted structure. 3) Process of rebaring in reinforced concrete construction.
The three main operations carried out in rebaring for reinforced concrete construction bars are cutting, bending, tying.
The diameter of reinforcement bars used reinforced concrete works mainly ranges from 6 to 42 mm these reinforcement bars comes from the Steel mills in specified lengths.
So during installation the reinforcement bars must be cut into required size.
The design engineer show the details about the bar bending and related work based on which the workers proceed the work.
4) Equipments used for rebaring techniques.
The equipments that is used for Rebaring operation is developed with the time as the size of Bar is increases. large size of bars are difficult to be handled by hand operation.
The uses of chisel and hammer was an early effect is used for bar bending.
Grades of Rebar in Different Codes
Table 1: Grades of Rebar in Different Codes
American Standard (ASTM A 615)
Euro Standard(DIN 488)
British Standard BS4449: 1997
Indian Standard (IS: 1786)
Grade 75 (520)
BST 500 S
GR 460 A
Grade Fe – 415, Fe – 500, Fe – 500D
Grade 80 (550)
BST 500 M
GR 460 B
Grade Fe – 550
Types of Steel Reinforcement Bars
Major types of steel bars used in the construction are as follows,
1. Mild Steel Bar
The surface of the mild steel bars are plain and round in shape. They are available in various sizes of 6 mm to 50 mm. They are used in concrete for special purposes, such as dowels at expansion joints, where bars must slide in a metal or paper sleeve, for contraction joints in roads and runways, and for column spirals. They are easy to cut and bend without damage.
For structural buildings like bridges and other heavy structures, mild steel bar is not recommended due to no great bonding between concrete and steel, slippage and strength.
Grades in mild steel bars
1. Mild Steel Bars
Mild steel bars grade-I designated as Fe 410-S or Grade 60.
Mild steel bars grade-II designated as Fe-410-o or Grade 40.
2. Medium Tensile Steel Bars designated as Fe- 540-w-ht or Grade 75.
Physical Requirement of Mild Steel Bars
Table 2:Physical Requirement of Mild Steel Bars
Types of Nominal size of bar
Ultimate Tensile Stress in N/mm2
Yield Stress N/mm2
Elongation Percentage min
Mild Steel Grade I or Grade 60
For Bars upto 20mm
For Bars above 20mm upto 50mm
Mild Steel Grade II or Grade 40
For Bars upto 20mm
For Bars above 20mm upto 50mm
Medium Tensile Steel Grade -75
For Bars upto 16mm
For Bars above 16mm upto 32mm
For Bars above 32mm upto 50mm
2. Deformed Steel Bar
Deformed steel bars have ribs, lugs and indentation on the surface of the bar, which reduces the major problem that is faced by mild steel bar due to slippage and good bonding is achieved between concrete and rebar. The tensile properties is higher compared to other rebars. These bars are produced in sections from 6 mm to 50 mm dia.
Types of Deformed Steel Bars
1. TMT Bars (Thermo Mechanically Treated Bars)
Thermo Mechanically Treated Bars are hot treated bars that are high in strength used in reinforced cement concrete (RCC) work. It is the latest induction in the MS steel bars with superior properties such as strength, ductility, welding ability, bending ability and highest quality standards at international level.
Characteristics of TMT Rebars
Better ductility and malleability
High yield strength and toughness
More bonding strength
High thermal resistance
Economical and safe in use
No loss in strength at welded joints
Ordinary electrodes used for welding the joints
2. High Strength Deformed Bars
High strength deformed bars are cold twisted steel bars with lugs, ribs, projection or deformation on the surface. It the extensively and majorly used for reinforcement purposes in a construction. These bars are produced in sizes or sections from 4 mm to 50 mm in diameter.
Characteristics of HSD Rebar
Low carbon value – HSD Bars have lower carbon level, resulting in good ductility, strength and welding ability.
Superior bonding strength – HSD bars are well known for their excellent bonding strength when used with concrete.
Welding capability – Since these bars have lower carbon content, they have 100% welding capability than conventional bars.
High tensile strength – HSD bars feature high tensile strength. They offer great asset in construction process, where a lot of bending and re bending is required.
Wide application range – These bars have wide application range like in building residential, commercial and industrial structures, bridges, etc.
Satisfactorily malleability – Minimum weight and maximum strength and suitable for both compression and tension reinforcement.
3. Other Types of Rebars
Depending upon the type of material used in the production of rebar, different types of rebars are
1. European Rebar
European rebar is made of manganese, which makes them bend easily. They’re not suitable for use in areas that are prone to extreme weather conditions or geological effects, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or tornadoes. The cost of this rebar is low.
2. Carbon Steel Rebar
As the name represents, it is made up of carbon steel and is commonly known as Black Bar due to carbon colour. The main drawback of this rebar is that it corrodes, which adversely effect the concrete and structure. The tensile strength ratio coupled with the value makes black rebar one of the best choices.
3. Epoxy-Coated Rebar
Epoxy-coated rebar is black rebar with an epoxy coat. It has the same tensile strength, but is 70 to 1,700 times more resistant to corrosion. However, the epoxy coating is incredibly delicate. The greater the damage to the coating, the less resistant to corrosion.
4. Galvanized Rebar
Galvanized rebar is only forty times more resistant to corrosion than black rebar, but it is more difficult to damage the coating of galvanized rebar. In that respect, it has more value than epoxy-coated rebar. However, it is about 40% more expensive than epoxy-coated rebar.
5. Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Polymer (GFRP)
GFRP is made up of carbon fibre. As it is made up of fibre, bending is not allowed. It is very resistant to corrosion and is costly when compared to other rebars.
6. Stainless Steel Rebar
Stainless steel rebar is the most expensive reinforcing bar available, about eight times the price of epoxy-coated rebar. It is also the best rebar available for most projects. However, using stainless steel in all but the most unique of circumstances is often overkill. But, for those who have a reason to use it, stainless steel rebar 1,500 times more resistant to corrosion than black bar; it is more resistant to damage than any of the other corrosive-resistant or corrosive-proof types or rebar; and it can be bent in the field.