Over the years, real estate has become a topic of varied opinions. The rise of this industry has seen so many challenges and witnessed many changes; however, thus, outcome attained by it has been varied too.
People today are not afraid to  invest in real estate and often go to great heights to make sure they receive value for their buck and more importantly get a place that makes them and their families comfortable.

However, even before the finished apartment comes into being, the initial draft or blueprint is something that key focus is laid on.

This also comprises the construction materials, the raw material for interiors, planning and several other important decisions that need to be discussed in this time zone. One of the major aspects here is the construction and building materials.

Today, we have brands and suppliers in abundance who supply some of the best building construction materials and a lot of builders also go one step ahead to even partner with suppliers who supply quality products.

So why the emphasis on ensuring you only have premium quality construction material as a part of your building construction process?

Well because, the final reflection of your construction will be proof of what you have used right from the beginning and its life and sustenance of the project as well, will be wholly focused on it.Here is how good construction materials will play an important role in the quality and safety of an infrastructure project:

1. Cost-Saving in the Long Run:

If you put an extra buck or two in procuring the best quality construction and building materials, this will in a way save a ton of money later on.If you skimp, you will be shelling out small amounts to fix a small wear and tear and in the end, this will result in a sum much larger than what you would have to pay initially for good quality material.This, make sure for this ‘skeleton’ of your construction, you invest only in the best quality goods you can acquire.

2. No Complaints and Maintaining Goodwill:

It is important to realize that the construction you are creating today will be a home for someone tomorrow.
Putting in your best while constructing, it will ensure their home tomorrow is safeguarded and secure and for that, they will only have the builder to thank! This in a way will add to your goodwill and lead to happy and content customers.


3. Recommendations will Improve Business like No Other Marketing Strategy:

Following the goodwill, people will speak to their acquaintances, friends and colleagues and in a way market your service for free! This will do wonders for your business in the long run as real testimonials from someone you know means more than any amounts of marketing strategies you use.

4. Saves Time:

In the future, fixing small glitches in the property will mean more expenses and effort, and of course will create a hassle for the residents too. All these concerns can be taken care of if you simply invest in quality construction materials right from the start.

5. Assurance during Natural Calamities or Crisis:

Although the risk associated with natural calamities cannot be measured, you can definitely take measures to minimize damage in case of one!

Some good quality material will be able to withstand damage to a certain extent and of course, will be able to repulse way better than a building whose base construction is in itself poor.



Building construction methods have experienced significant facelift in recent times with innovative technologies being harnessed optimally for improving the qualitative index of buildings.

This has spelled considerable advantages for end users like us who can remain immune from recurrent expenses on repairs and other incidental building-related jobs. Construction lead time has also been reduced and building costs have been rationalized.

This post takes you through 8 techniques that have given the much-needed fillip to the most primitive human pursuit that still exists i.e. construction.

1)  3D Volumetric Construction

Using this modular construction technology, 3D units are produced in controlled factory settings using needful construction and building materials.

Finished units are transported to site in various modules, basic structural blocks or final touched up units with all amenities installed, for assembly. Blocks can be erected rapidly at site and properties of concrete like fire retardant, sound resistivity, thermal mass etc. are retained.

2) Precast Flat Panel Modules

These are primarily wall and floor modules which are manufactured away from the actual site and then transported to site for erection. Load bearing components like decorative cladding and insulation panels can also be produced.
Also called cross-wall construction, the technology has gained momentum due to seamless adherence to specifications and ease as well as swiftness of construction.

3) Tunnel Formwork System

With this tunnel technique, construction is paced up for cellular structures of repetitive patterns through the building of monolithic walls or units in a single operation per day.

Expeditious work is achieved by deploying formwork and readily mixed concrete with the convenience and agility of factory conditions. Formworks in tunnel form are stacked and used at the site with cranes.

4) Flat Slabbing Technology

This technique utilizes the simplicity of contemporary formwork for quickly building flat slabs to facilitate easy and swift placing of horizontal amenities and for partitioning.
Maximization of pre-fabricated services occurs as services can be carried out in an uninterrupted manner in zones underneath the floor slabs.Every top-notch building construction company .  is using the same as internal layouts can be conveniently modified for accommodating alterations at a later date. Further, reinforcement needed is lesser which cuts down labour costs significantly.

5) Pre-cast Foundation Technique

Foundations can be built swiftly with precast concrete units which are produced in a factory and are high on quality quotient. Strength is imparted to foundation related building construction materials through interconnected concrete piles.

This technique allows construction work to progress even in inclement weather and minimizes excavation activity.

6) Hybrid Concrete Building Technique

This technique expedites construction turnaround time by blending the advantages of concrete pre-casting with the in-situ building. Quality improves, whereas the cost of construction plummets.

Hybrid concrete structures are easy to build, competitive in nature and perform consistently.

7) Thin Joint Masonry Technique

Utilization of this technique leads to the reduction of the quantum of mortar applied by slashing it depth from 10mm to lesser than 3mm. Consequently, mortar can be laid swiftly with enhanced productivity on the longer wall panels.

With large sized concrete blocks, higher construction efficiency along with significant cost reduction can be achieved. Within a single day, the number of mortar courses laid is higher as curing of mortar takes place quickly without compromising on bonding strength resulting in the elimination of floating problem.

8) Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) Technique

ICF technique employs polystyrene blocks that feature twin walls and can be rapidly put together for creating building wall formwork. The formwork is then pumped in with high quality, ready mixed, factory-made concrete.
The building construction process becomes fool-proof and the resultant structure has a high level of sound and thermal insulation.

Building construction methods have matured significantly with advancement in technologies underlying them.

What is Rebaring ? Types of Steel Reinforcement Bars , types of rebaring , Types of Deformed Steel Bars

What is Rebaring ?

Steel reinforcement bars or rebars are used to improve the tensile strength of the concrete, since concrete is very weak in tension, but is strong in compression. Steel is only used as rebar because elongation of steel due to high temperatures (thermal expansion coefficient) nearly equals to that of concrete.

Rebaring is the method of insertion of the Steel bars when,
there is change in design or there is some extension of the present structure.When Steel rod as per drawing has not been installed.
Rebaring technique is reinforced concrete construction is a method for proper fabrication and placement of reinforcement bar as per the design and drawing of RCC work.
2)  Need of Rebaring
The rebars are mainly provided at the junction where the formwork of structural element is closed as well as at the point where a new structural element needs to be bond with the former one.Change in the design and sudden extension in structure.Steel bars are not placed according to as per design.
Various conditions that rebaring process and equipment are changed.rebaring technique in reinforced concrete construction.Rebaring technique on a Pre-casted structure.
3) Process of rebaring in reinforced concrete construction.

The three main operations carried out in rebaring for reinforced concrete construction bars are cutting, bending, tying.
The diameter of reinforcement bars used reinforced concrete works mainly  ranges from 6 to 42 mm these reinforcement bars comes from the Steel mills in specified lengths.
So during installation the reinforcement bars must be cut into required size.

The design engineer show the details about the bar bending and related work based on which the workers proceed the work.

4) Equipments used for rebaring techniques.

The equipments that is used for Rebaring operation is developed with the time as the size of Bar is increases. large size of bars are difficult to be handled by hand operation.
The uses of chisel and hammer was an early effect is used for bar bending.

Grades of Rebar in Different Codes

Table 1: Grades of Rebar in Different Codes

American Standard (ASTM A 615) Euro Standard(DIN 488) British Standard BS4449: 1997 Indian Standard (IS: 1786)
Grade 75 (520) BST 500 S GR 460 A Grade Fe – 415, Fe – 500, Fe – 500D
Grade 80 (550) BST 500 M GR 460 B Grade Fe – 550

Types of Steel Reinforcement Bars

Major types of steel bars used in the construction are as follows,

1. Mild Steel Bar

The surface of the mild steel bars are plain and round in shape. They are available in various sizes of 6 mm to 50 mm. They are used in concrete for special purposes, such as dowels at expansion joints, where bars must slide in a metal or paper sleeve, for contraction joints in roads and runways, and for column spirals. They are easy to cut and bend without damage.

For structural buildings like bridges and other heavy structures, mild steel bar is not recommended due to no great bonding between concrete and steel, slippage and strength.

Grades in mild steel bars

1. Mild Steel Bars

  • Mild steel bars grade-I designated as Fe 410-S or Grade 60.
  • Mild steel bars grade-II designated as Fe-410-o or Grade 40.

2. Medium Tensile Steel Bars designated as Fe- 540-w-ht or Grade 75.

Physical Requirement of Mild Steel Bars

Table 2:Physical Requirement of Mild Steel Bars

Types of Nominal size of bar Ultimate Tensile Stress in N/mm2 Yield Stress N/mm2 Elongation Percentage min
Mild Steel Grade I or Grade 60
For Bars upto 20mm 410 250 23
For Bars above 20mm upto 50mm 410 240 23
Mild Steel Grade II or Grade 40
For Bars upto 20mm 370 225 23
For Bars above 20mm upto 50mm 370 215 23
Medium Tensile Steel Grade -75
For Bars upto 16mm 540 350 20
For Bars above 16mm upto 32mm 540 340 20
For Bars above 32mm upto 50mm 510 330 20

2. Deformed Steel Bar

Latest NATA Course Syllabus

Council of Architecture (CoA) has released the official NATA syllabus 2022 on the official website Candidates will be able to check the detailed information regarding the subjects, topics and units that have to be studied for NATA Exams. The authorities will conduct NATA as a single section examination. Candidates will be assessed on their aptitude and the candidates will accordingly have to prepare for the examination. NATA syllabus is an essential part of the examination and candidates are advised to check it beforehand. Read to know more about NATA Syllabus .

NATA 2022 Syllabus

Candidates can check the details regarding NATA 2022 syllabus from the table given below:

Physics and Geometry
Aesthetic Sensitivity
Colour Theory
Language and Interpretation
Visual Perception and Cognition
Lateral Thinking and Logical Reasoning
General Knowledge and Current Affairs
Building Anatomy and Architectural Vocabulary
Basic Techniques of Building Construction and Knowledge of Material
Graphics and Imagery

While preparing the questions for NATA 2022, the authorities will keep many factors that they wish to assess in mind. Candidates can check the factors below:

  • Abstract Reasoning – Candidates will be tested on their general knowledge and their ability to apply it in situations.
  • Situational Judgment – Candidates will be tested on their problem-solving abilities.
  • Numerical Reasoning – Candidates will be tested on their ability to solve simple numerical problems.
  • Inductive Reasoning – Candidates will be tested on their ability to analyze data and patterns.
  • Verbal Reasoning – Candidates will be assessed on their verbal logic.
  • Logical Reasoning – Candidates will be assessed on their ability to recognize patterns, relationships, sequences and more.
  • Diagrammatic Reasoning – Candidates will be tested on their ability to analyze drawings and use logical reasoning.

Previous Year’s NATA Syllabus

NATA Syllabus for Mathematics

Chapter Topics
Algebra Definitions of A. P. and G.P.; General term; Summation of first n-terms of series; Arithmetic/Geometric series, A.M., G.M. and their relation; Infinite G.P. series and its sum
Logarithms Definition; General properties; Change of base.
Matrices Concepts of m x n, real matrices, operations of addition, scalar multiplication and multiplication of matrices. Transpose of a matrix. Determinant of a square matrix. Properties of determinants (statement only). Minor, cofactor and adjoint of a matrix. Nonsingular matrix. The inverse of a matrix. Finding the area of a triangle. Solutions of system of linear equations. (Not more than 3 variables).
Trigonometry Trigonometric functions, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and submultiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations. Properties of triangles, inverse trigonometric functions, and their properties.
Coordinate geometry Distance formula, section formula, area of a triangle, condition of collinearity of three points in a plane. Polar coordinates, the transformation from Cartesian to polar coordinates and vice versa. Parallel transformation of axes, the concept of locus, elementary locus problems. The slope of a line. Equation of lines in different forms, angle between two lines. Condition of perpendicularity and parallelism of two lines. Distance of a point from a line. Distance between two parallel lines. Lines through the point of intersection of two lines. Equation of a circle with a given centre and radius. A condition that a general equation of second degree in x, y may represent a circle. Equation of a circle in terms of endpoints of a diameter. Equation of tangent, normal and chord. Parametric equation of a circle. The intersection of a line with a circle. Equation of common chord of two intersecting circles.
3-Dimensional Co-ordinate geometry Direction cosines and direction ratios, the distance between two points and section formula, equation of a straight line, equation of a plane, a distance of a point from a plane.
Theory of Calculus Functions, the composition of two functions and inverse of a function, limit, continuity, derivative, chain rule, derivatives of implicit functions and functions defined parametrically. Integration as a reverse process of differentiation, indefinite integral of standard functions. Integration by parts. Integration by substitution and partial fraction. Definite integral as a limit of a sum with equal subdivisions. The fundamental theorem of integral calculus and its applications. Properties of definite integrals. Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations, separation of variables method, linear first-order differential equations.
Application of Calculus Tangents and normals, conditions of tangency. Determination of monotonicity, maxima, and minima. Differential coefficient as a measure of rate. Motion in a straight line with constant acceleration. Geometric interpretation of definite integral as area, calculation of area bounded by elementary curves and Straight lines. Area of the region included between two elementary curves.
Permutation and combination Permutation of n different things taken r at a time. Permutation of n things not all different. Permutation with repetitions (circular permutation excluded). Combinations of n different things taken r at a time. Combination of n things not all different. Basic properties. Problems involving both permutations and combinations.
Statistics and Probability The measure of dispersion, mean, variance and standard deviation, frequency distribution. Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability and Bayes’ Theorem, independence of events, repeated independent trails and Binomial distribution.

NATA Syllabus for General Aptitude

Chapters Topics
Sets and Relations The idea of sets, subsets, power set, complement, union, intersection and difference of sets, Venn diagram, De Morgan’s Laws, Relation and its properties. Equivalence relation — definition and elementary examples.
Mathematical reasoning Statements, logical operations like and, or, if and only if, implies, implied by. Understanding of tautology, converse, contradiction, and contrapositive
Objects Texture related to architecture and the built environment. Interpretation of pictorial compositions, Visualizing three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional drawing. Visualizing different sides of 3D objects. Analytical reasoning, mental ability (visual, numerical and verbal), General awareness of national/ international architects and famous architectural creations.

NATA Syllabus for Drawing

Understanding of scale and proportion of objects, geometric composition, shape, building forms and elements, aesthetics, colour texture, harmony, and contrast. Conceptualization and Visualization through structuring objects in memory. Drawing of patterns – both geometrical and abstract. Form transformations in 2D and 3D like union, subtraction, rotation, surfaces, and volumes. Generating plan, elevation and 3D views of objects. Creating 2-D and 3-D compositions using given shapes and forms. Perspective drawing, Sketching of urbanscape and landscape, Common day-to-day life objects like furniture, equipment, etc from memory.

NATA 2022 Exam Pattern

Candidates will be able to check the details regarding the NATA EXAM PATTERNS from the table given below:

Particulars Details
Mode Computer-Based Test (Online)
Duration 3 hours
Medium English
Sections Aptitude
Number of Questions 125
Type of Questions Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Preferential Answer Type Questions (PAQ)

Numerical Answer Type Questions (NAQ)

Marking Scheme 75 Questions – 1 mark will be given for every correct answer.

25 Questions – 2 marks will be given for every correct answer.

25 Questions – 3 marks will be given for every correct answer.



BArch is a 5-year UG course in which students are taught to construct and design buildings, monuments, bridges, and other construction-able structures.

Students who want to pursue BArch must have done at least 10+2 with Non Medical Stream from a recognized board or diploma from a recognized university with 50% aggregate marks. Students completing the eligibility process have to go through an entrance exam such as NATA or JEE Mains to get admission and get selected in the BArch course.

BArch also offers great opportunities for students in the job market like architecture designers, architecture engineers, staff consultants, managers, art directors, building contractors, etc. . Some of the best recruiters of BArch course students are L&T, IMAXE, DLF, VSA Space Design, and many more. The average salary offered after completing the course is around INR 4 lacs to INR 5 lacs per annum.

Bachelor in Architecture Course Highlights

Full name Bachelor of Architecture
Duration 5 years
Eligibility Minimum 50% aggregate marks in 10+2 with Non-medical stream or diploma in civil or architecture from a recognized university in relevant subject
Admission process Entrance exam
Course Fee INR 3-5 lakhs
Course Average Salary INR 5-10 lakhs
Top Recruiting Companies L & T, DLF, IMAXE, Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj, Manchanda Associates, Sahara Group, Architect Consultants, VSA space Design(P). Ltd., Edifice Architects Pvt. Ltd.
Job Position Data Analyst, Architecture Designer, Architecture Engineer, Staff Consultant, Manager, Art Director, Building Contractor, Landscape Architect, Technical Assistant, Interior Designer.

About Bachelor in Architecture

  • BArch teaches the student to construct and design buildings, monuments, bridges, and other construction-able structures.
  • This course course is intended to produce licensed and professional architects who are qualified to work on government and private projects.
  • Students who study BArch design the blueprints of the structure to be made according to the idea or instruction given to them.
  • BArch consists of various aspects of different streams of humanities, engineering, aesthetics, along with theory subjects, studio, project work, practical training, and research training.

Bachelor in Architecture Admission Process

B. Arch students have to go through an entrance exam NATA Test . In distance mode, students are selected on the basis of the marks they received in the last NATA exam.

Bachelor of Architecture Eligibility

The students who want admission to Bachelor of Architecture must fulfill certain eligibility criteria. Below are the steps about the eligibility criteria:

  • The students taking admission in B. Arch must have passed 10+2 with mathematics as the main subject from a recognized board.
  • The students must have scored at least 50% aggregate marks in their last qualifying exam.
  • The students who have done a diploma in relevant subject from a recognized university with at least 50% aggregate marks could also take admission in B. Arch.

Bachelor of Architecture Entrance Exam

Exam name Registration date Exam date
JEE Mains To be Announced To be Announced

Bachelor of Architecture Distance Education

Earlier there was option of Distance Learning of B.Arch . But from last few years the distance program has been stopped.

WHO IS AN ARCHITECT , Roles of Architects,Architect Skills and Duties , Cost Estimation , Main Differences Between an Architect and a Civil Engineer

An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice, architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, the term architect derives from the Latin architectuswhich derives from the Greek (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e., chief builder.

The professional requirements for Architects vary from place to place. An architect’s decisions affect public safety, and thus the architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction, though the formal study of architecture in academic institutions has played a pivotal role in the development of the profession as a whole.

Roles of Architects in Construction

Once an architect is contacted by a client, a meeting is called to discuss the project needs and requirements. Several meetings may take place until both parties are satisfied with the conceptual design. However, designing an entire building is a huge task for a single person; architects work with civil and structural engineers to discuss technical issues and the structural integrity of a building.

Architects are not just involved in the building design phase. Their role is important in every stage of a project, and this article summarizes their responsibilities. Architects can also help improve energy efficiency, by designing buildings that maximize natural lighting and ventilation, while reducing the heating and cooling needs.

Cost Estimation

Cost Estimation at different stages of the project allows better control over the budget. Architects visualize the whole building structure, bringing creative designs and ideas to the construction industry, but these also require an underlying structural design and MEP installations.

Architects and engineers must be careful not to underestimate the cost of materials and construction time, since this helps provide effective cost estimations. The amounts of details presented by architects in their cost estimations depends on their extent of work: they can be in charge of presenting a complete construction estimation, or just a part such as landscaping.

Architect Skills and Duties

The following are some of the main skills that a professional architect must have:

  • Customer service and retention: It is important for architects to develop social skills and manners, since they are usually the first construction professional that works with a client. Since they work closely with clients during all project stages, architects must have excellent oral and written communication skills.
  • Design: Architects must design, plan, and develop concepts to create construction plans and technical documents. These are based on client requirements and ideas.
  • Research: Architects must learn about the different building codes, safety regulations, construction innovations and city laws that affect their designs. Since these regulations are in constant evolution, they must stay up-to-date with new laws and requirements.
  • Technology knowledge: Architects must be trained in modeling software and techniques, such as BIM. This will help them remain competitive in the construction industry, which is becoming more technological.

Main Differences Between an Architect and a Civil Engineer

As discussed before, architects and civil engineers work together during the planning, design, and construction phases of building projects. The difference is reflected on the main goal of each professional.

  • Architects will focus on the aesthetics, look, feel and functionality of a structure. It is important to note that architects also have technical knowledge on construction methods and structural design, but that aspect is mostly delegated to civil engineers.
  • Civil engineers will concentrate on analyzing the structural integrity of the project. This included making sure the structure will support the loads and forces it will endure during its lifespan.

By working together, architects and civil engineers can find innovative ways to meet the client’s  vision and requirements. A good working relationship between the two professions guaranties an effective and successful job.




beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam’s axis. Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending . The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam’s support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses, strains and deflections of the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of support, profile (shape of cross-section), equilibrium conditions, length, and their material.

Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion.


In engineering, beams are of several types

  1. SIMPLY SUPPORTED – a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance.
  2. FIXED – a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation.
  3. OVER HANGING – a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.
  4. DOUBLE OVERHANGING – a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both ends.
  5. CONTINUOUS – a beam extending over more than two supports.
  6. CANTILEVER – a projecting beam fixed only at one end.
  7. TRUSSED – a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a  trusses.


A simply supported beam is the simplest structural element, as the name itself suggests, it is supported at its both ends, at one end it is pinned and the other is either pinned or rollers are used. It will undergo both bending and shearing and no translational motion is allowed, only sometimes when the roller end is used, of course, the bending and shearing will vary according to the type of load such as UDL(uniformly distributed load), UVL(uniformly varying load), concentrated load etc. Coming to the next part, if both ends are hinged then it will be a fixed beam which is another class of beams, for which every type of load is not applicable, and deflection is rather less, but of course, it can be regarded as a simply supported beam as it supported by two hinge.


fixed beam is one with ends restrained from rotation. In reality a beams ends are never completely fixed, as they are often modeled for simplicity. However, they can easily be restrained enough relative to the stiffness of the beam and column to be considered fixed.


Overhanging: A simple beam extending beyond its support on one end. Double

overhanging: A simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports.

Continuous: A beam extending over more than two supports.


A continuous beam, i.e. a beam that has more than two supports, is statically indeterminate . The reactions in the supports of a continuous beam cannot be obtained with the equations of static equilibrium only. For the calculation of the reactions in the supports each section is considered as an independent beam. The action of the adjacent part is substituted by a moment in the support between the sections. The equation for determining these moments is known as the theorem of three moments.

A beam that has one fixed end and n roller supports is n-fold statically indeterminate. If both ends of the beam are fixed, then the degree of indeterminacy is equal to the number of supports. The moment in a roller support for a beam with a console is equal to the moment from the load on the console. We calculate the necessary geometrical stiffness of the beam with the equation of elastic stability  R = R=M/ECs. The stress in the beam should be less than the beam-specific and material limits, σmax < σcr and σmax < σy.


cantilever is a rigid  structural elements , such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it protrudes; this connection could also be perpendicular to a flat, vertical surface such as a wall. Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs . When subjected to a structural load the cantilever carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a  moment and Sheared stress

Cantilever construction allows overhanging structures without external bracing, in contrast to constructions supported at both ends with loads applied between the supports, such as a simply supported beam found in a post and lintel system.


beam which is stiffened by a system of braces constituting a truss of which the beam is a chord is called trussed beam. It consists of steel sections (or wooden beams) and struts of steel rods. Trussed beams are used when there is great weight to be supported across wide space without supports from beneath.







Footing is one of the most important parts of a structure which transfers loads of a structure to the underlying soil. The selection of suitable type of footing generally depends on the following factors:

  1. The depth of the soil at which safe bearing strata exists.
  2. The type and condition of soil.
  3. The type of the superstructure.


  • Wall footing/Strip footing.
  • Spread Footings
  • Isolated footings.
  • Stepped footings.
  • Combined footings.
  • Sloped footings.
  • Mat or Raft foundation.
  • Strapped footings
  • Pile foundation.


It is a component of shallow foundation which distributes the weight of a load bearing wall across the area of the ground. It is also known as wall footing.



As the name suggests, a spread is given under the base of the foundation so that the load of the structure is distributed on wide area of the soil in such a way that the safe bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded.


It is square, circular or individually rectangular slab of uniform thickness, provided under each column.


The main purpose of using stepped footing is to keep the metal columns away from direct contact with soil to save them from corrosive effect. They are used to carry the load of metal columns and transmit this load to the below ground.


When two or more columns are supported by a footing it is called combined footing. This footing may be of rectangular or trapezoidal in plan. Combined footing is provided under following situations.

  • When columns are close to each other and their individual footings overlap.
  • Soil having low bearing capacity and requires more area under individual footing.
  • The column end is situated near the property line and the footing can not be extended.


In such footing, the outer and inner column is connected by a strap beam, does not transfer any load to the soil. The individual footing areas of the columns are so arranged that the C.G of the combined loads of the two columns pass through the C.G of the two footing areas. Once this criterion is achieved, the pressure distribution below each individual footing will be uniform.


This foundation covers the entire area under the structure. This foundation has only RCC slab covering the whole area or slab and beam together. Mat foundation is adopted when heavy structures are to be constructed on soft made-up ground or marshy sites with uncertain behavior. Mat foundation is also known as raft foundation.


The footings having sloping top or side faces are known as sloped footings. This type of footing is useful in the construction of formwork.



Falce ceiling is the ceiling created under the main slab or the floor, using any material like Gypsum sheet,Plaster of paris (pop),Thermocol,wood ply or anything like that. A ceiling under the slab of the room to creat design and aesthetics or for the aucostic or thermal insulation purpose. Ceiling other then original or main ceiling (slab) is called falce ceiling.


False ceiling is done underneath your real ceiling.

There is a gap between the real ceiling and false ceiling. The gap is kept for various reasons. The benefits of false ceilings are :-

  1. It helps you reduce too high ceiling. Gives you a compact feeling.
  2. It gives nice touch to the interiors. A variety of interior ceilings are now coming in the market to select from for beautifying your home or office.
  3. False ceiling helps you hide electrical wiring and you can use concealed lights.
  4. Centralized air-conditioning can be hided under the false ceiling.
  5. For offices, all the ducting cables can be moved hidden behind the false ceiling.

And there are many more, some people use the spaces under ceiling for hiding wealth like cash, gold & jewellery, property papers and keep them safe from thief and tax official.


False ceiling is provided below the roof slab on suspended supports. The false celling is usually provided for temperature control (heat insulation for AC), to install lights, or to conceal electrical and other networking cables and ugly or too high ceiling.

alse ceiling is an example of modern construction and architecture in both residential and commercial applications.


The following figure shows the various components of a false ceiling:


False ceilings can be differentiated into many types based on their uses, material used and appearance and visibility.

The major classification based on materials used are listed briefly below,

  1. Gypsum Ceiling
  2. Plaster of Paris Ceiling
  3. Fiber Ceiling
  4. Wooden Ceiling
  5. Glass Ceiling
  6. Metal Ceiling
  7. Synthetic Leather or Cloth Ceiling


Gypsum false ceiling is a hydrated sulfate of calcium. This type of false ceiling are lightweight, sound insulated, fire resistance, soft and thermally insulated.

Gypsum false ceiling comes in the shape of square boards that are hung with the help of iron framework. The finishing work on these boards like paints, laminates, wallpapers and texture finish gives good look.


Plaster of Paris (POP) is the majorly used material in the construction of false ceiling. POP is obtained when gypsum is heated to a certain degree. It gives the both aesthetical and functional help.

Plaster of Paris false ceiling are attractive, almost no maintenance and has a long life span. They are very excellent insulators or heat and cold.

These types of false ceiling don’t only hide the ugly members of structure, ventilation ducts and conduits but also give smooth finish to the ceiling.


Fiber false ceiling are in high demand for the construction of false ceiling due to low cost and east installation. The material used to manufacture fiber ceiling panels are man made by synthetic and natural minerals. As these are man-made they come in many shapes and sizes.


Wooden false ceiling is used due to its natural textures and pattern. Nowadays this types of false ceiling are used commonly as it gives a pleasant look to the eyes.

Wooden false ceiling being costly, is not used in malls and hospitals but can be installed in residential buildings. They can be given various finishes, or painted to get the right look.

Wooden false ceiling has many disadvantages, majorly which are:

  • Prone to thermite attack.
  • Prone to warping.
  • The room should be thermally controlled.


One of the type of false ceiling used in construction are of glass. It is a non-crystalline material with the property of brittle and transparent. But this can be altered to make it non brittle and non-transparent using some admixtures.

As glass is a good insulator of heat, it can be used for false ceiling. This type of false ceiling improves aesthetical appearance of the building.


As metal is a hard and durable material, it is used extensively in the false ceiling. When the metal surface is polished it gives a shiny surface which is a treat for eyes.

The metals used in this are galvanized iron and aluminum. The cost of this ceiling are low as they are easy to install and access. The hidden members of the structure are easily accessed as the panels are easily removable and reattached. The construction cost becomes less as the installation, fixing and maintained is low.


The materials used in this type of ceilings are either leather or cloth. As both the used materials are man-made they can be given any form, shape and design which improves the aesthetic view of interior of the building.

As these collects dust and has low light transferring property it’s only used in temporary tents or other temporary buildings.


  • It provides a smooth homogeneous surface to the roof.
  • It provides fire protection as it creates compartmentation.
  • False ceiling helps in acoustical treatment.
  • It conceals all the non-pleasing elements and hides it from the viewer’s eyes.
  • It also hides the pipelines and the electrical cables running in the room. All the ducts of air-conditioning can be hidden under it.
  • False ceiling materials are easy to install and cheap as compared to traditional roof systems.


  • The most worrying aspect of having a false ceiling would be pests. They can get through into the space between and can start their own breeding which might lead to a lot of trouble.
  • Also be careful while putting up decorations or hangings while you have a false ceiling in place. Make sure you know the strength and durability, do’s and don’ts with regard to your ceiling.
  • Lastly, the false ceiling would reduce the height of the ceiling considerably and hence do not install false ceiling unless you have a decent ceiling height.



In modern era because of advancement of the technology and research every day, new materials are coming up in the construction industry which is no exception. One such material in the building construction industry is Wood Plastic Composite (WPC). It is an Eco-friendly material which is emerging as an alternative to the natural wood as well as plywood. It is a composite material which constitutes of waste Wood fibers and thermoplastics. They are mixed together to form a base material possessing thick consistency. It is then further extruded and molded to different required shapes and sizes.

Various different colors and additives can also be added to create materials with better specifications. There is wide range of uses and applications of WPC boards in outdoor deck flooring, fences, door& window frames and outdoor landscape and so on.

In terms of percentage, it comprises of 70% of virgin polymer, 15% of wood powder(fiber) and remaining 15% of additives. It is available in size of 8 ft. X 4 ft.(2440 mm X 1220 mm) with the thickness of boards 5 mm (0.20 in.), 6 mm (0.24 in.), 7.5 mm (0.30 in.), 11 mm (0.43 in.), 12 mm (0.47 in.), 17 mm (0.67 in.) and 18 mm (0.71 in.).


There are various characteristics of WPC board which are listed below:

  • The appearance and feel resembles to that of a natural wood. It requires less repair and maintenance as it does not distort/bend or chip off in small pieces like natural wood.
  • It is highly resistant to moisture and hence a highly durable material.
  • It also has resistance to termite and fungus.
  • It does not corrode easily and does not decay or lose its constituents.
  • As it is made up of recycled plastic and waste wood, hence it is sustainable and green material.
  • There is a greater hold of nail , screws and fasteners when used with WPC in comparison with natural wood.
  • Ten WPC Boards = Save One Tree

It is gaining popularity as it prevents the unnecessary cutting of trees and is made using waste materials in a very beneficial way to create improved building material . One tree is saved for every ten WPC boards.

Here are various advantages and disadvantages of WPC boards:


01. Quality:

  • It comes with guaranteed quality which consists of modifiers, foaming agents, stabilizers and various elements that are mixed in specific and strict ratio. As there is a blend of high-quality materials, it eventually becomes a high-quality material.

02. Ease of Customization:

  • As per requirements and needs, it can be moulded and shaped into different shapes and sizes. Due to this, it can be used for making of designer doors and windows which will give rich look and fine polishing. It is at present mostly used in doors, windows and home furnishings.

03. Sustainable Material:

  • Paint is used or thermal transfer is done for modern and high-end surface treatment to make the WPC doors, flooring and profiles look prospering.  The surface treatment provides an exclusive and attractive look to the WPC boards.

04. Substitute:

It is a promising and cost-effective substitute for the plywood due to its various characteristics listed above.


01. Chemical Properties:

  • It contains a plastic polymer and wood fibres so the shortcomings of both the materials will be present in it.

02. Resistance:

  • The resistance of WPC to the extreme temperature is low as compared to wood.

03. Cost:

  • The cost of WPC material is higher as compared to the other materials used for the same purpose.

04. Appearance:

  • It lacks the natural wooden texture due to which the feeling of natural wood is missing when furniture or doors of this material is prepared.

Uses and Applications of WPC Board

01. Outdoor Decks: 

  • It is highly used in outdoor decks and patios. The manufacturers of WPC offer various decking options such as solid decking, hollow decking, mosaic decking and many more.

02. Fencing:

  • As the material is secure and durable; they are widely used for the preparation of fences for gardens and other outdoor fencing purposes.

03. Paneling:

  • This material is quite long lasting and as it is available in larger size, this allows the use of this material in indoor as well as outdoor panelling.

04. Interior Areas: 

  • WPC boards are also used in the interior areas for making of various furniture items such as wardrobes, kitchen cabinates , interior partitions, Bathroom vanities and also in the ceiling of the room.

WPC board is now an emerging material which is modern and long-lasting, replacing the traditional construction materials due to its strength, modern designs and many more characteristics.